Canada Overview

Geography

Canada is a country in North America. It extends from the Pacific in the west to the Atlantic in the east, and northward into the Arctic Ocean. It is separated from Greenland to the northeast by Baffin Bay and faces the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon to the east. It shares its southern and northwestern borders with the USA.

Canada, with an area of 9,980,000 square kilometers, is the second largest country in the world but has a very low population density with only over 33,000,000 inhabitants. Canada is one of the countries with most cities ranked in the top annual ranking of the world's 'most livable' cities. Canada is known as the “Maple Leaf Country”.

 

History

About fourteen thousand years ago, Canada was inhabited by native aboriginal people, who have occupied the country since that time. At the end of the fifteenth century, British and French colonists began to explore the east coast of North America and established colonies in what is now Canada. In 1763, after the Seven Years' War, France ceded most of its colonies in North America to Britain. In subsequent decades, British colonists explored the western regions of the continent to the Pacific Ocean and established several new colonies. On July 1, 1867, with of the Constitution Act, 1867, the Province of Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia were proclaimed as the Dominion of Canada, where the Province of Canada was divided into the new provinces of Ontario and Quebec. In the following 100 years, other British colonies in North America were incorporated into the dominion, forming the modern-day Canada.

 

Population and government

Canada is a country that implements a federal system, constitutional monarchy, and parliamentary system and is comprised of ten provinces and three territories. Queen Elizabeth II is the head of state and sovereign of Canada and the Governor General of Canada acts as the queen’s representative to the people. The official languages of Canada are English and French. Aboriginal languages are identified as the first languages. The capital of Canada is Ottawa. Canada is one of the most multicultural countries in the world, with a very high racial and cultural diversity. It is also a country of immigrants; about 1/4 of Canadian nationals were born overseas.

Benefiting from abundant natural resources and highly developed technologies, Canada is one of the richest and the most developed countries in the world. Globally, it is ranked at the top in education, transparency of governmental policies, human rights, standard of living, and economic liberty.